History of the Day for:
- 1513: Forces of James IV of Scotland battled English troops in Flodden near Branxton. The Scots were heavily defeated and James IV was killed along with all his nobles.
- 1753: The first steam engine arrived in the colonies.
- 1776: The U.S. was born when the Continental Congress changed the name of the nation from the United Colonies to the United States.
- 1850: The territories of New Mexico and Utah were created; California entered the Union as the 31st state.
- 1861: Sally Tompkins became the only Confederate Army female commissioned officer.
- 1890: "Colonel" Harland Sanders, founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken (now KFC), was born in Henryville, Ind. (d: 1980).
- 1904: Mounted police were first used in New York City.
- 1914: In World War I, the chief of the German general staff, Helmuth von Moltke, called off the German advance after the British and French counter-attacked, ending the first Battle of the Marne. German casualties were estimated at 800,000.
- 1942: In one of their rare raids on the U.S. mainland, a Japanese plane dropped incendiary bombs on Oregon.
- 1948: After the withdrawal of Soviet forces from North Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed with Pyongyang as its capital.
- 1957: President Eisenhower signed the first civil rights bill Congress passed since Reconstruction.
- 1963: Alabama Gov. George Wallace was served a federal injunction when he ordered state police to bar African-American students from enrolling in white schools.
- 1971: Prisoners rioted and seized control of Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, N.Y.
- 1975: Czech tennis player Martina Navratilova asked for political asylum in the U.S.
- 1985: President Reagan ordered sanctions against South Africa.
- 1993: Arch foes Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization agreed to recognize each other, clearing the way for an end to the century-old conflict between Arabs and Jews.
- 2001: Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, is assassinated in Afghanistan.
- 2004: 2004 Australian embassy bombing: A bomb explodes outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, killing 10 people.